Free Access
Volume 80, Number 1, January-February 2000
New applications of membrane technology in the dairy industry
Page(s) 77 - 91
DOI: 10.1051/lait:2000109

Lait 80 (2000) 77-91

Effect of homogenization of cream on composition, yield, and functionality of Cheddar cheese made from milk supplemented with ultrafiltered milk1

Bonney S. Oommen, Vikram V. Mistry, Manoj G. Nair

Minnesota-South Dakota Dairy Foods Research Center, Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA


Cheddar cheeses were made from milks supplemented with ultrafiltered skim milk to 4.57 and 5.93% protein and from milks without supplementation to serve as controls (3.18% protein). Milks were standardized (casein-to-fat ratio of 0.7) with unhomogenized cream or homogenized (6.9/3.45 MPa) cream. The six treatments were replicated five times. Rennet clotting time decreased with protein concentration and homogenization of cream increased it. $\rm k_{20}$, the time to reach an amplitude of 20 mm on formagraph after rennet clotting time, decreased with homogenization and concentration. $\rm a_{40}$, the amplitude on formagraph after 40 min of rennet addition, increased with protein and homogenization. Cheese moisture ranged from 37.29 to 39.37% and the proportion of fat in dry matter ranged from 52.9 to 53.7%. Cheese yield adjusted to 37% moisture and 1.5% salt and adjusted yield per kg protein increased significantly in treatments with both protein concentration and homogenization. Fat recovered in cheese decreased with concentration in unhomogenized treatments while it increased in homogenized treatments. Protein recovery increased with protein concentration. A sensory panel did not detect any significant difference in flavor, flavor intensity, and body and texture with protein supplementation, but there was a significant increase in the body and texture scores in treatments with homogenization. Hardness of cheeses increased in treatments with concentration. Meltability of cheese increased with age in homogenized treatments. Free oil and free oil on fat basis decreased in treatments with homogenization and concentration. These two parameters also decreased with cheese age with a larger decrease for the homogenized treatments.

Cheddar cheese / homogenization / ultrafiltration

1 Published with the approval of director of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station as Publication Number 3139 of the Journal Series. This research was sponsored, in part, by the Minnesota-South Dakota Dairy Foods Research Center, Brookings, SD and Dairy Management, Inc., Rosemont, IL.

Correspondence and reprints: V.-V. Mistry

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