Free Access
Issue
Lait
Volume 54, Number 533-534, 1974
Page(s) 165 - 179
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:1974533-5349
Lait 54 (1974) 165-179
DOI: 10.1051/lait:1974533-5349

L'évolution de la contamination du lait par les insecticides organochlorés entre 1970 et 1972

H. MAHIEU

Ingénieur agronome E.N.S.A. Rennes à la Section Lait de l'Institut Technique de l'Elevage Bovin

Abstract - A survey had been made by the Milk Department of the Institute for Beef and Dairy Cattle (I.T.E.B. Paris) in view of standing out the most frequent process of milk pollution by organochlorine com-pounds, for the ratio of their concentration in milk happens to be much higher than the upper rates generally admitted in that food.
The information stated in this study was collected from data available on french farms. The present work may be far from being a statistical report. Its main purpose was rather to make a most detailed analysis of typical samples allocated to areas spread over all the french territory.
On account of successive prohibitions restraining the use of certain chemicals (the development of the survey contributed to bring about such a change) contamination sources lockened down, e.g. whitening of buildings for dairy cattle, and so for that in 1972 pollution was mainly in touch with animal feeding.
Further research on each type of feed used for dairy cattle made it possible to draw conclusions allowing to know wether the change in regulations concerning the use of organochlorine com-pounds in agriculture were well advised or not.
Now the point about the contamination of milk in the future... In fact, the concentration of B.H.C. (H.C.H.) residues found in milk has been decreasing from year's end to year's end. On the other hand the situation is still unsatisfactory in certain areas because of the high ratio of pesticides found in milk, when comparing these results with those established for foreign products.
As far as Heptachlor epoxyde residues are concerned, the contamination evolved into a great disaster, particulary in agricultural regions devoted to the production of industrial crops, as far as contaminated beet pulps are being for feeding dairy cattle


Résumé - L'enquête entreprise par la Section Lait de l'Institut Technique de l'Elevage Bovin (I.T.E.B.) avait pour but de définir les processus les plus fréquents par lesquels les pesticides organochlorés peuvent contaminer le lait à des taux excédant les limites généralement admises.
Cette enquête a eu lieu au niveau de l'exploitation agricole. Elle n'a pas de prétention statistique, mais se contente de déterminer par l'étude approfondie d'un nombre de cas limités, mais bien répartis sur l'ensemble du territoire français, comment et pourquoi un lait peut se trouver contaminé.
A la suite d'interdictions successives auxquelles l'enquête n'est d'ailleurs pas étrangère, plusieurs causes de contamination sont passées au second plan (blanchiment des étables...) laissant en 1972 comme cause de contamination principale : l'alimentation.
L'étude de la contamination aliment par aliment permet d'énoncer quelques remarques quant au bien-fondé de l'interdiction de l'utilisation des cyclodiènes en agriculture.
Quant à l'évolution de la contamination du lait... Si on constate une diminution importante des résidus de HCH d'un hiver sur l'autre, certaines régions sont loin de répondre aux tolérances de nos partenaires commerciaux et cela, du fait de la rémanence de ces produits. En ce qui concerne les résidus d'heptachlore-époxyde, l'escalade de la contamination fut catastrophique surtout dans les régions de cultures industrielles ; ceci correspondrait à la rétrocession de pulpes de betteraves contaminées pour l'alimentation des animaux


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