Free access
Volume 78, Number 4, 1998
Page(s) 401 - 412
Lait 78 (1998) 401-412
DOI: 10.1051/lait:1998439

Characterization of liposomes and their effect on the properties of Cheddar cheese during ripening

Edith Laloy, Jean-Christophe Vuillemard and Ronald Simard

Centre de recherche Stela, pavillon Comtois, université Laval, Québec, GIK 7P4, Canada

(Received 23 June 1997; accepted 23 October 1997)

Abstract - This study was undertaken to observe the location and structure of liposomes in the cheese matrix and to identify their effect on the characteristics of Cheddar cheese during ripening. Composition, proteolysis, microstructure and texture of Cheddar cheeses treated with either empty liposomes or liposomes containing cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum were analysed during two months of ripening. Results were compared with control Cheddar cheeses. Observations on cheese microstructure showed that some liposomes were included in the casein matrix, but most vesicles were located in areas close to fat globules and appeared destabilized as early as the first day after manufacture, inducing some changes in the cheese microstructure. The presence of liposomes greatly increased the moisture of cheeses, modified the microstructure and the rheological characteristics of ripened cheese. Cheeses containing liposomes were softer, less cohesive and elastic and more brittle than control cheeses. After two weeks of ripening and until the end of the study, proteolysis, particularly peptidolysis, was higher in cheeses treated with liposomes containing cell-free extracts. HPLC-analysis confirmed intensive peptidolysis between one and two months of ripening. © Inra / Elsevier, Paris

Résumé - Caractérisation des liposomes et de leur effet sur les propriétés du fromage cheddar au cours de l'affinage
Cette étude a été réalisée dans le but d'observer la distribution et la structure des liposomes dans la matrice fromagère, ainsi que le rôle des liposomes sur les caractéristiques du fromage cheddar au cours de l'affinage. La composition, la protéolyse, la microstructure et la texture de fromages cheddar, contenant des liposomes vides ou des liposomes dans lesquels ont été encapsulés des extraits cellulaires de Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum, ont été analysées durant deux mois d'affinage et comparées à des fromages cheddar témoins. Les analyses de microstructure ont montré que quelques vésicules sont incluses dans la matrice caséique, mais la plupart des liposomes sont localisés à proximité des globules de matière grasse et paraissent déstabilisés dès le premier jour d'affinage. La présence de liposomes augmente significativement l'humidité des fromages, modifie la microstructure et les caractéristiques rhéologiques des fromages affinés. Les fromages contenant des liposomes sont plus mous, moins cohésifs et élastiques et plus friables que les fromages témoins. Les extraits cellulaires immobilisés dans des liposomes favorisent la protéolyse, particulièrement la peptidolyse, dès la deuxième semaine d'affinage et ce, jusqu'à la fin de l'expérience. Les analyses HPLC confirment une peptidolyse intensive entre le premier et le deuxième mois d'affinage. © Inra / Elsevier, Paris

Key words: liposome / cheese / microstructure / ripening

Mots clés : liposome / fromage / microstructure / affinage

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