Free access
Issue
Lait
Volume 61, Number 601-602, 1981
Page(s) 62 - 79
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/lait:1981601-6025
Lait 61 (1981) 62-79
DOI: 10.1051/lait:1981601-6025

Les levures et les moisissures dans le fromage bleu de Cabrales

M. NUNEZ, Margarita MEDINA, Pilar GAYA and Carmen DIAS-AMADO

Département de Biochimie et de Microbiologie. C.R.I.D.A. 06. I.N.I.A. Carretera de la Coruna Km 7 - Apdo. 8111 - Madrid (Espagne)

(Reçu pour publication en septembre 1980.)

Abstract - The yeasts and moulds of spanish mould-ripened Cabrales cheese
Changes in number and composition of fungic flora have been investigated throughout the cheese-making and ripening processes of two batches of Cabrales cheese. The following species were isolated from milk and curd: Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces unisporus, Trichosporon capitatum and Geotrichum candidum.
During the first ripening (5-15 days), Pichia membranaefaciens was the yeast species which predominated in the interior of cheeses and Torulopsis candida on the cheese surface. They did not assimilate lactose, but utilized lactic acid, rising the pH and contribuing so to the ripening process. G. candidum and Penicillium roqueforti were the main mould species during this period.
Throughout cave ripening (16-120 days), P. membranaefaciens and P. fermentans were the majority yeast flora in the interior of cheeses and halotolerant species Debaryomyces hansenii and T. candida the only ones found on the cheese surface. P. roqueforti was the main mould species in the interior of cheeses, while P. roqueforti and P. frequentans predominated on the cheese surface


Résumé - L'évolution quantitative et qualitative de la flore fongique a été étudiée tout au long de la fabrication et de la maturation de deux cuviers de fromage de Cabrales. A partir du lait et du caillé on a isolé les espèces suivantes : Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces unisporus, Trichosporon capitatum et Geotrichum candidum.
Pendant le premier affinage, du 5e au 15e j, Pichia membranaefaciens prédomine à l'intérieur des fromages et Torulopsis candida à la surface. Ces levures n'assimilent pas le lactose, mais elles contribuent à la maturation en éliminant l'acide lactique. G. candidum et Penicillium roqueforti sont les espèces de moisissures dominantes pendant ce premier affinage.
Au cours du deuxième affinage, du 16e au 120e j, P. membranaefaciens et P. fermentans représentent la plupart de la flore levure à l'intérieur et Debaryomyces hansenii et T. candida, très halotolérants, sont les seules espèces rencontrées à la surface. Parmi les moisissures, P. roqueforti est l'espèce qui prédomine nettement au centre du fromage, tandis que P. roqueforti et P. frequentans sont les principales espèces de la surface


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